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Advances in Polymer Technology publishes articles reporting important developments in polymeric materials, their manufacture and processing, polymer product design and considering the economic and environmental impacts of polymer technology.
Chief Editor Dr. Ning Zhu is a Professor at Nanjing Tech University, China. His current research focuses on the design, synthesis, and application of bio-based materials and functional polymers based on microflow technology and catalysis.
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Studying the Fabrication and Characterization of Polymer Composites Reinforced with Waste Eggshell Powder
Polymeric and plastic materials currently have numerous positive impacts due to their unique properties that make them important for various engineering applications. However, sustainability is a vital factor that should be considered, because of environmental issues. Eggshells (ES) are an important way to reduce the impact of nondegradable materials when applied to reinforce different types of polymer matrices, whether natural or synthetic polymers. Therefore, this study is an attempt to explore the potential application of waste eggshell fillers for the first time as a natural reinforcement in polyamide 12 (PA) composites. PA was loaded with three different ratios (3, 5, and 10 wt. %) of eggshell powder. Morphological studies of the PA powder, ES powder, and their composites were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were performed to study the thermal and chemical properties of the raw materials and the produced composites. The results indicate ES fillers’ potential usage as a reinforcement material to develop the thermal and chemical properties of the PA polymer matrix composites, thereby reducing costs and minimizing the environmental pollution caused by waste eggshells and petroleum-based polymers.
Model to Predict Polymer Fibre Diameter during Melt Spinning
Polymeric materials were evaluated with regard to their spinnability and respective fibre diameters. A modified single fibre spinning device was firstly used to derive a novel generalised model, utilising process parameters (die diameter, throughput, and stretching relevant take-up pressures) and material properties (zero shear viscosity) to predict the diameter of polymeric fibres on the basis of four different polymers. Further evaluation of the resulting power law dependence was conducted on filaments produced via conventional melt spinning and meltblown processes. Fibres produced on the pilot machines showed close agreement with the model equation with only the need to adjust an easily calculable device dependent factor. The outcome of the presented work is a user-friendly model of high practical relevance, which can be used to predict the diameter of amorphous and semicrystalline polymeric fibres, independent of material and machine used with sufficient accuracy for fast estimations.
Improving the Physical Properties of Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning from Polyvinyl Chloride and Polyacrylonitrile at Low Concentrations
In this study, both polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were dissolved in dimethyl formaldehyde (DMF) with 8 wt. % concentrations at 25 : 75, 50 : 50, and 75 : 25 of PVC: PAN blending. For the investigation of the homogeneity and compatibility of mixture polymer solutions, it is examined by rheological properties such as viscosity, shear stress, shear rate, and calculation of the flow behavior index, while the investigation of the stability and high density of nanofibers without beads used field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). The results show that blending of PAN with PVC leads to improving of the electro spun ability of PVC with more stability, and the mean nanofiber diameter was at 25 : 75 PVC: PAN. Moreover, mechanical properties are ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity decreasing with decreasing the blending ration from pure PVC to 75 : 25 PVC: PAN nanofibers by 71% and 83%, respectively, while the elongation at break increases by 79%, and decomposition temperatures decreased from 451.96 to 345.38°C when changing the PVC content from pure PVC to 25 : 75 PVC: PAN. On the other hand, changing of the nanofiber behavior from hydrophobicity to hydrophilic increased the PAN content in PVC: PAN blends. Furthermore, the low interaction between the chains of polymers and the crystallinity (%) and crystalline size (nm) of blend nanofibers slightly decreased compared to the pure polymers. According to all tests, the 25: 75 PVC: PAN was the best blending ratio, which gave a more stable nanofiber produced at low concentrations and more compatible between the PVC and PAN.
Modification of Tyre Rubber Crumb with Wastes of Plant Oil Production
Recovery of fat-and-oil production wastes will reduce the technogenic impact on the environment, as well as involve them in a new production cycle as a secondary material resource. As part of solving this problem, the possibilities of using fat-and-oil production wastes in the production of a tyre reclaim and a modified tyre reclaim are considered. In the course of the studies, the fat-and-oil industry wastes’ sorption characteristics are determined, and in relation to oils in static and dynamic conditions, the spent reagent reclamation ways are determined. The authors obtained a tyre reclaim and a modified tyre reclaim using the fat-and-oil industry wastes (soap stock, diatomite, bleaching clay, and fatty acids isolated from soap stock). In this work, the authors studied the possibility of using the fat-and-oil industry wastes in the formulations of a tyre reclaim and a modified tyre reclaim. Extended physical and mechanical tests of experimental rubbers led to the conclusion that it is most expedient to use the fat-and-oil industry wastes in the formulation of rubber compounds for production of sleeper pads for railroad tracks, since when using a tyre reclaim and a modified tyre reclaim, the indicators of rubber properties practically do not change and comply with control standards.
Fused Deposition Modeling of Single-Use Plastic Alloy
Packaging plastics are called ‘single-use plastics’ because of short lifetime. Among which, the three plastics of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) take more than 70%. Due to incompatibility, few research has been done on the alloy of the three plastics. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of single-use plastic alloy (SUPA) of ternary PE, PP, and PET as the 3D printing material. Tensile and bending tests are carried out to investigate the mechanical properties, photographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) are taken for morphology analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to study the crystallization behavior of the alloys. The results show that there is an optimal ratio for all the components to obtain the best mechanical performances, i.e., the ratio of with 20 wt% PET, 2 wt% maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) and 2 wt% organic modified montmorillonite (OMMT). This SUPA has a tensile strength of 14.48 MPa, a tensile modulus of 586.42 MPa, a flexural strength of 15.85 MPa, and a flexural modulus of 544.67 MPa. Due to the function of compatibilizer and nanoclay (NC) will be affected by redundancy, the potential primary fibrosis while collecting the feeding filaments and the secondary fibrosis at the nozzle of 3D printing might be responsible for the variation of the mechanical performances.
Low Temperature, In Situ Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate in Silica Containing Emulsion Gels
Vinyl acetate (VAc) was polymerized to about 90% conversion in 9 h at 40°C from the colloidal microstructure of the VAc/fumed silica/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) system. The glass transition () of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) polymerized in these emulsion gels with silica was higher () than those of PVAc made from bulk polymerization at 60°C () and the weight average molar mass () was also larger ( about 300 kg/mol) than those from bulk polymerization (). Increased , , and lowered processing temperature for these composites could facilitate new applications for PVAc.