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The Influence of Vermicompost and Various Concentrations of Lead on the Enzymatic Activity of Sierozem Soils of Kazakhstan
The influence of vermicompost and various concentrations of lead on the activity of hydrolytic (urease and protease) and oxidative-reducing (catalase and dehydrogenase) enzymes in the sierozem soil of Southern Kazakhstan (Turkestan region) was studied. Background unpolluted soils served as a control. The work shows a change in the enzymatic potential when vermicompost (8 t/ha) and lead are introduced into the soil in the concentration range of 16 to 160 mg/kg Pb. As a result of experimental studies, a decrease in the activities of catalase, protease, and dehydrogenase and, conversely, an increase in the activity of urease with an increase in the lead content in the soil system were revealed. Introduction of vermicompost (vermicompost) into the soil caused an increase in the activity of all studied enzymes and a decrease in the translocation ability of Pb. Inhibition of the process of translocation of lead into plants by vermicompost creates conditions for obtaining environmentally friendly agricultural products.
Physical, Static, and Kinetic Analysis of the Electrochemical Deposition Process for the Recovery of Heavy Metal from Industrial Wastewater
Through the electrodeposition technique, toxic metals in wastewater can be removed and deposited on a chosen substrate with excellent selectivity. In this work, we use this technique to extract lead cations from simulated wastewater by using fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate at various temperatures. In situ tracking of lead nucleation at advanced stages has been achieved by chronoamperometry. According to the experimental results, the theoretical models developed to study the kinetic growth of lead deposits in 2D and 3D are in good agreement. Nucleation rate and growth rate constants, for example, were found to be strongly influenced by temperature. Cottrell’s equation is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersiveX-ray techniques were used to investigate and characterize the lead deposits. The reported results could provide insight into the optimization of electrodeposition processes for heavy metal recovery from wastewater and electronic wastes.
HSBM-Produced Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Physical Properties and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity against Human Pathogens
This work examines the antibacterial and anticandidal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) synthesized by high-speed ball milling (HSBM), for short milling times: 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h. First, ZNPs have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and the Zetasizer analyzer. The HSBM results in semispherical ZNPs with some local agglomeration. We found that nanoparticles decrease in size continuously with milling time until they reach about 84% of their original size after only two hours; at 1000 rpm, HSBM reduces ZNP’s average size by 6 nm/min. As particle size decreases, the X-ray diffracted patterns become broader and less intense while confirming that no phase transformation has occurred, proving HSBM’s effectiveness in synthesizing nanoparticles on a large scale within a short period of time. According to FT-IR analysis, as material sizes change, the polarization charge of the ZNP surface changes as well, creating discrepancies in vibrational frequency, as demonstrated by the shifting of the IR spectra in the 300–600 cm−1 frequency band. Raman responses have also been proven to depend on the particle size. Using the Agar well diffusion method, eleven microorganisms have been tested for the antimicrobial activity of ZNPs. Among the six Gram-negative tested bacteria, S. sonnei showed the largest inhibition zone of about 11.3 ± 0.6 mm with ZNPs measuring 148 nm in size (milled for 2 h), followed by E. coli ATCC 25922. Accordingly, S. aureus was the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, with inhibition zone size gradually increasing from 11.8 ± 0.3 mm to 13.5 ± 0.5 mm with decreasing nanoparticle size from 767 to 148 nm, while S. aureus ATCC 25923 was resistant to both milled and unmilled samples. Similar results were seen with candida, all milled ZNPs inhibited C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, whereas C. knisei was resistant to all ZNP sizes. In light of microorganism-ZNP interaction mechanisms, the obtained results have been discussed in depth.
Intercropping and Rhizobium Inoculation Affected Microclimate and Performance of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties
A field experiment was carried out at Hawassa, during the 2020 cropping season with the objective to evaluate the impact of maize-common bean intercropping and Rhizobium inoculation on microclimate, growth, and yield of common bean varieties. Treatments consisting of two common bean varieties, two levels of inoculation and three spatial arrangements of common bean with another sole maize were laid out in a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results revealed that the main effect of spatial arrangements highly significantly ( < 0.001) affected soil and leaf temperature. Soil moisture content was improved under intercropped plots compared with sole cropping. The intensity of light and qualities, such as red, far-red, and photosynthetically active radiations (μmol m−2 s−1) and ultraviolet rays (UV)-A, UV-B (W m−2), were reduced under intercropping as compared to the sole. Interaction effects of variety, spatial arrangements, and inoculation significantly ( < 0.01) affected plant height and leaf area index. Inoculated sole Nassir outperformed for plant height and leaf area index. Inoculated sole Hawassa Dume variety performed best for nodule number plant−1, nodule dry weight plant−1, pods number plant−1, 100 seed weight, grain yield, and above-ground biomass yield. The highest grain yield (2.8 t ha−1) was recorded from inoculated sole Hawassa Dume. However, considering the equivalent ratio (LER), intercropping with one maize row to two haricot bean rows spatial arrangements was productive by 62% more than sole cropping (total land equivalent ratio of 1.62%).
Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds, Flavonoids, and Antioxidants from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.)
This study evaluated the effect of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) on the isolation of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidants from dill. UAE improved the extraction yields of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content as well as increased the antioxidant activities of all dill extracts. The optimum UAE condition to obtain highest total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities was 50% ethanol for 30 min giving 135.88 ± 3.23 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 229.53 ± 4.97 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, respectively. Lowest IC50 values against 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals were 0.034 ± 0.00 mg/mL and 0.12 ± 0.00 mg/mL, respectively. Results indicated the capability of UAE in extracting biologically active compounds from dill as a prospective functional material.
Species Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Woody Plants and Anthropogenic Disturbances in Zijje Maryam Church Forest, Ethiopia
Our current study was conducted in Zijje Maryam Church Forest, Ethiopia, to explore woody species composition, structure, regeneration status, and anthropogenic disturbances inside the sacred groves. The aforementioned information for adequate conservation and management of the church forest is not well documented. Fifteen main quadrats each having an area of 625 m2 (25 m × 25 m) were used for vegetation and disturbance data collection. Determination of the sampled quadrats was based on the principle that minimum quadrats give the smallest possible area in which all species occurring in the church forest are present. All woody species with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 2.5 cm within the quadrat were identified, counted, and their height and DBH data were recorded. The criterion to start at DBH ≥ 2.5 cm was to exclude seedlings having DBH < 2.5 cm and height ≤0.6 m. Sapling and seedling data were collected using 45 saplings and 45 seedling quadrat that measured 4 m2 and 1 m2, respectively. Vegetation data analysis and ANOVA were used for statistical comparison. A total of 48 woody plant species belonging to 46 genera and 36 families were identified. Fabaceae was the dominant family containing 5 species followed by Rosaceae with 3 species. Total basal area of the church forest was 83.03 m2 ha−1. The density of seedlings, saplings, and matured woody species stem ha−1 were 15555, 3833, and 865, respectively. Talking these densities, the regeneration status of the forest was good. The Shannon diversity and evenness of woody plant species in the forest was high, 3.29 and 0.85, respectively. Juniperus procera 27.67 (9.22%) and Olea europaea were species with the highest IVI. Nearly, 22% of areas of the forest get disturbed and higher anthropogenic disturbances occurred near the edge of the forest. Gathering, clearing, and grazing are the major human disturbances that stakeholders need to tackle for conservation. Zijje Maryam Church Forest has heterogeneous species composition with varied seedlings and saplings. Therefore, local conservation policies recommended not only protect large forests, but also the small and valuable forests service to the needs of local people.