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Scanning publishes international and interdisciplinary research focused on scanning electron, scanning probe, and scanning optical microscopies, and their advancement and applications.
Chief Editor, Guosong Wu is a Professor at the College of Mechanics & Materials in Hohai University. His research interests include surface engineering, corrosion science, metals and plasma related technologies.
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Technology for Fundamental Improvement of an Extremely Low-Quality Video Signal for Use in Fine Focusing and Astigmatism Correction in Scanning Electron Microscopy
This study describes important techniques for production of a series of video signals for use in fine focusing operations and near-perfect astigmatism correction in the general-purpose scanning electron microscopy (SEM) field. These techniques can enhance the stability of the signal greatly when used for focusing. As two particularly important fundamental techniques, SEM image acquisition with priority given to the signal-to-noise ratio and signal reinforcement based on the active image processing concept were utilized fully. The performance improvement was evaluated using the case of a previously reported support system for fine focusing and astigmatism correction based on image covariance. The method is almost completely robust against noise within practical limits and allows for focusing and astigmatism correction for even extremely noisy SEM images. The results of this study may be useful not only in the SEM field but also in many fields that use weak signals.
The Effect of Gastric Acid on the Surface Properties of Different Universal Composites: A SEM Study
The aim of this study is to compare surface roughness and microhardness changes of three monochromatic (Omnichroma, Vittra Unique, and Charisma Diamond One) and three universal shade (Neo Spectra ST, G-ænial A’CHORD, and Nova Compo C) resin composites after exposure to simulated gastric acid. A total of 144 disc-shaped specimens (24 discs of each composite resin) were prepared using plexiglass molds () for evaluation from each material. Specimens of each material were divided into two main groups for the evaluation of the microhardness and surface roughness and also two subgroups for 7- and 14-day exposures to simulated gastric acid. Initial microhardness and surface roughness measurements of all samples were measured before immersion (T1) followed by exposing the samples to simulated gastric acid for 7 days (T2) and 14 days (T3), and then, the microhardness and roughness measurements were repeated. Randomly selected specimens of each material for each of the time intervals (T1, T2, and T3) were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way ANOVA revealed that the surface roughness and hardness values of all tested composite resin restorative materials show no statistically significant difference for the initial (T1) value (). Regarding the 7th day (T2) and 14th day (T3) surface roughness and microhardness value of all composites, there are statistically significant differences between the groups (), while there was no statistically significant difference between the surface hardness reduction percentage between the time intervals (). As a result of this in vitro study, increase in surface roughness and decrease in microhardness of the tested universal composite materials when exposed to simulated gastric acid were statistically significant.
Evaluation of Dentinal Microcracks following Diode Laser- and Ultrasonic-Activated Removal of Bioceramic Material during Root Canal Retreatment
This study is aimed at evaluating the use of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis and the dentinal microcrack formation following retreatment of bioceramic sealer employing adjunct laser-activated irrigation and ultrasonic-activated irrigation. Thirty sound human single-canal teeth () obturated using the single-cone technique with bioceramic sealer were retreated using nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files. The sample was randomly divided into three equal groups: group 1, the control group, was not subjected to further treatment; group 2 underwent ultrasonic activation of irrigants; group 3 underwent active irrigation with a diode laser (980 nm wavelength). Using micro-CT, the teeth were scanned before and after retreatment protocols. Two calibrated experienced observers viewed the cross-sectional images and calculated the number of dentinal defects. The presence of any crack or craze line on the external root surface or internal canal wall was counted. Data were analyzed using Friedman’s two-way analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact test. Statistical significance was set at . A significant increase occurred in the number of cracks post retreatment protocols, specifically in the coronal and middle canal thirds, compared to pre- and postinstrumentation (). However, ultrasonic- or laser-activated irrigation did not result in a significant increase in the number of cracks (). NiTi rotary root canal retreatment was associated with a significant increase in dentinal microcracks. However, employing ultrasonic- or laser-activated irrigation as adjunct retreatment techniques did not reveal a significant increase in dentinal microcracks within the roots.
Evaluation of Different Adhesive Resin Removal Methods after Debonding Ceramic Orthodontic Molar Tubes: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study
Objectives. To evaluate and compare the impacts, bond strength, residual adhesive, and time invested on the enamel surface after debonding of recently introduced ceramic buccal molar tubes with different systems. Materials and Methods. Ceramic molar tubes were bonded to fifty-four maxillary molar teeth, and a shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were recorded, and the samples were divided into two groups for adhesive removal with low-speed instruments: tungsten carbide bur or diamond-coated micropolisher point. The time to clean the enamel surfaces was also noted down for each tooth. The enamel surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) after adhesives were cleaned. Shapiro-Wilk’s, Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s, and Student’s independent tests were used for statistical analysis. Results. The mean SBS value of the tested ceramic molar tubes was MPa, and the majority of the samples were scored as ARI 1 and ARI 2. No statistically significant difference between PoGo micropolisher and TCB was found in terms of time values for surface cleaning. The enamel surface characteristics of TCB for adhesive remnant removal resulted in a better enamel surface than the single-step diamond polisher when the samples were investigated by using SEM. Conclusions. Ceramic molar tubes may be an enamel-safe product for patients seeking for fully aesthetic orthodontic treatment, if used in carefully handled clinical conditions. One-step polishing systems utilised with low-speed instruments could be used confidentially for cleaning the resin remnants on enamel after orthodontic treatment.
Application of CT Multimodal Images in Rehabilitation Monitoring of Long-Distance Running
In order to monitor the rehabilitation of athletes injured in long-distance running, the author proposes a method for rehabilitation monitoring of long-distance running based on CT multimodal images. This method combines the latest multimodal image technology, integrates multimodal technology into CT images to improve the accuracy, performs image segmentation on CT multimodal images through medical segmentation methods, and analyzes the segmented images; finally, it can achieve the effect of rehabilitation treatment for athletes in long-distance running. Experimental results show that the total time taken by the authors’ method is 10.9 hours, with an average time of 8 seconds, which is much shorter than the other two control methods. In conclusion, the authors’ method allows for better rehabilitation monitoring of long-distance running sports injuries.
Evaluation of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction by Pelvic Floor Ultrasonography after Total Hysterectomy for Cervical Cancer
Objective. To study the value of pelvic floor ultrasonography in evaluating pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) after total hysterectomy for cervical cancer. Methods. All the enrolled patients were given 4D pelvic floor ultrasound examination before and after surgery. The results of ultrasonic examination and the parameters of four-dimensional ultrasonic examination before and after surgery were analyzed, and the quality of life of the patients before and after surgery was evaluated. Results. Postoperatively, the posterior angle of bladder and urethra, the rotation angle of urethra, the decreased value of bladder neck, and the distance between bladder neck and pubic symphysis were ()°, ()°, ()°, () mm, and () cm, significantly greater than the preoperative ()°, ()°, ()°, () mm, and () cm (). Postoperative detrusor muscle thickness, bladder neck movement, residual urine volume, and bladder rotation angle () mm, () cm, () ml, ()° were significantly higher than those of preoperative () mm, () cm, () ml, ()° (). The scores of emotional function, psychological function, social function, and physiological function were () points, () points, () points, and () points, significantly higher than those of () points, () points, and () points before surgery, () (). Conclusions. The application of pelvic floor ultrasonography to detect pelvic floor dysfunction after total hysterectomy can clearly display the anatomical structure of the pelvic floor, which is conducive to disease prevention and treatment. Four-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound can clearly show the postoperative pelvic floor function, which is worthy of clinical promotion and reference.