Journal of Toxicology
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Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision93 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore7.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.670
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Journal of Toxicology has recently been accepted into Food Science & Technology Abstracts

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Journal of Toxicology publishes papers in all areas of toxicological sciences, including the structure, function, and mechanism of agents toxic to humans and/or animals, as well as toxicological medicine, safety evaluation, and environmental health.

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Chief Editor, Professor You-Cheng Hseu, is based at China Medical University. His research focuses on the biology of free radicals, bioactivity in traditional Chinese medicines, and antioxidants and cosmeceutics.

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Research Article

Evaluating the Impact of Commonly Used Pesticides on Honeybees (Apis mellifera) in North Gonder of Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Global honeybee losses and colony decline are becoming continuous threat to the apicultural industry, as well as, for food security and environmental stability. Although the putative causes are still unclear, extensive exposure of bees to pesticides could be the possible factor for worldwide colony losses. This study was aimed at evaluating the impact of nine commonly used pesticide incidents on adult worker honeybees (A. mellifera) under the laboratory condition, in North Gonder of Amhara region, Ethiopia. Feeding test, contact test, and fumigation tests were carried out for each pesticide following the standard procedures, and each pesticide toxicity was compared to the standard toxic chemical, dimethoate 40% EC (positive control), and to 50% honey solution (negative control). The results revealed that all the tested pesticides caused significant deaths of the experimental bees () in all the tests when compared to the negative control. Diazinon 60% EC, endosulfan 35% EC, and malathion 50% EC were appeared highly toxic causing 100% mortality of bees, while chlorsulfuron 75% WG killed 90% of the experimental bees as tested via feeding. On the other hand, agro-2, 4-D and its mixture with glycel 41% EC are moderately toxic, and mancozeb 80% WP and glycel 41% EC were slightly toxic to honeybees as compared to the positive control (dimethoate 40% EC). Suddenly, diazinon 60% EC and malathion 50% EC triggered 100% mortality of bees, while endosulfan 35% EC and chlorsulfuron 75% WG caused 63.63% and 90.82% of bee mortality, respectively, when evaluated via contact test. The fumigation test also showed that chlorsulfuron 75% WG, diazinon 60% EC, and endosulfan 35% EC caused 100%, 86.7%, and 65.6% mortality rate of bees. Our result also highlighted that tested LD50 of all pesticide incidents were significantly lower than the manufacturer-based LD50. This shows that local honeybees A. m. jemenetica are extremely sensitive to commonly used agricultural pesticides, which may affect the colony level due to the intensive application of these pesticides in Ethiopia.

Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity, and Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Senna italica Extract Used in Traditional Medicine

Medicinal plants such as Senna italica are increasingly used for their purgative virtues to treat stomach aches, fever, and jaundice. This study aims to screen the phytochemical compounds and to assess the antioxidant activity in vitro and the acute oral toxicity in vivo of Senna italica leaves. The plant was harvested, dried, pulverized, and preserved. Phytochemical screening was performed using different laboratory protocols. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were, respectively, obtained by maceration and decoction technics. The assay for free radical scavenging was used to examine the antioxidant activity using DPPH. Acute oral toxicity was performed with aqueous and ethanolic extracts at 5000 mg/kg of body weight on female albinos Wistar rats, weighing 152.44 ± 3.68 g. Subjects were checked for any signs of mortality and macroscopy toxicity during the 14 days of the study. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured to assess liver and kidney functions, and histological analysis of these organs was conducted. Phytochemical analysis highlighted the presence of total phenols, flavones, tannins, alkaloids, and quinone derivatives. Semiethanolic (78 μg/mL), ethanolic (9.7 μg/mL), and aqueous extract (9.2 μg/mL) showed an interesting antioxidant activity. Biochemical and hematological parameters were normal and not significantly different (). The plant extracts did not produce any toxic effect or mortality at the provided dose. Senna italica extracts induced an increase in the volume of liver and kidney tissues but no necrosis. Thus, lethal dose 50 of Senna italica leaf extract is probably higher than 5000 mg/kg.

Research Article

Sublethal Effects of Cadmium on the Osmoregulatory and Acid-Base Parameters of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at Various Times

Background. Cadmium (Cd) can contaminate aquatic environments as a result of anthropogenic activity. Cd accumulates quickly in the tissues of fish and has the potential to affect their physiology, including osmoregulation and acid-base balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the sublethal effects of Cd on the osmoregulation and acid-base balance of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at different times. Methods. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd (1 and 2 mg/L) for 4 and 15 days. At the end of the experiment, fish were collected from each treatment to examine the levels of Cd and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the gills, plasma osmolality, ions, blood pH, pCO2, pO2, and hematological parameters. Results. Cd concentrations in gills rose with increasing Cd concentrations in the medium and exposure time. Cd inhibited respiration by generating metabolic acidosis, decreasing gill CA, reducing pO2, plasma osmolality, Cl, and K+, particularly at 2 mg/L for 4 days and 1 and 2 mg/L for 15 days. Red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Ht) levels decreased as Cd levels in water and exposure duration increased. Conclusion. Cd inhibits respiration, lowers RCB, Hb, and Ht levels and decreases ionic and osmotic regulation. All of these impairments can limit a fish’s ability to provide appropriate oxygen to its cells, hence diminishing its physical activity and productivity.

Research Article

A Clinical-Epidemiological Study on Beta-Blocker Poisonings Based on the Type of Drug Overdose

Background. Beta‐blockers carry a high risk of potentially causing fatal poisoning if overdosed. We aimed to assess the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with beta-blocker poisoning. Methods. Patients were categorized based on the type of drug poisoning into propranolol, other beta-blockers, and the combination of beta-blocker groups, respectively. Demographic data, drug toxicity, and clinical, laboratory, and treatment information of different groups were compared. Results. During the study period, 5086 poisoned patients were hospitalized, of whom 255 (5.1%) had beta-blocker poisoning. Most patients were women (80.8%), married (50.6%), with a history of psychiatric disorders (36.5%), previous suicide attempts (34.6%), and intentional type of exposure (95.3%). The mean ± SD age of the patients was 28.94 ± 11.08 years. Propranolol toxicity was the most common among different beta-blockers (84.4%). There was a significant difference in age, occupation, education level, and history of psychiatric diseases with respect to the type of beta-blocker poisoning (). We observed changes in the consciousness level and need for endotracheal intubation only in the third group (combination of beta-blockers). Only 1 (0.4%) patient had a fatal outcome in toxicity with the combination of beta-blockers. Conclusion. Beta-blocker poisoning is not common in our poisoning referral center. Propranolol toxicity was most common among different beta-blockers. Although symptoms are not different among defined beta‐blocker groups, more severe symptoms are observed in the combination of the beta-blocker group. Only one patient had a fatal outcome in the toxicity with the combination of the beta-blocker group. Therefore, poisoning circumstances have to investigate thoroughly to screen coexposure with combined drugs.

Research Article

The Activity of Metalloproteases and Serine Proteases in Various Organs after Leiurus macroctenus Envenomation

Background. Scorpion stings may be life-threatening since their venoms are comprised of a wide range of toxins and other bioactive molecules, such as enzymes. At the same time, scorpion envenomation may increase matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) levels, which enhance proteolytic tissue destruction by venom. However, investigations on the impact of many scorpions’ venoms, such as those of Leiurus macroctenus, on tissue proteolytic activity and MMP levels have not yet been conducted. Methods and Results. The present study aimed to examine the total proteolysis levels in various organs after Leiurus macroctenus envenomation and evaluate the metalloproteases and serine proteases’ contributions to the total proteolytic activity. Changes in MMPs and TIMP-1 levels were tested as well. Envenomation led to a significant increase in proteolytic activity levels in all assessed organs, mostly in the heart (by 3.34 times) and lungs (by 2.25 times). Conclusions. Since EDTA presence showed a noticeable decrease in total proteolytic activity level, metalloproteases appeared to play a prominent role in total proteolytic activity. At the same time, MMPs and TIMP-1 levels were increased in all assessed organs, suggesting that Leiurus macroctenus envenomation causes systemic envenomation, which may induce multiple organ abnormalities, mostly because of the uncontrolled metalloprotease activity.

Research Article

Zinc Chloride Can Mitigate the Alterations in Metallothionein and Some Apoptotic Proteins Induced by Cadmium Chloride in Mice Hepatocytes: A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

The heavy metal cadmium is extremely harmful to both humans and animals. Zinc supplementation protects the biological system and reduces cadmium-induced toxicity. This study aimed to determine whether zinc chloride (ZnCl2) could protect male mice with the damaged liver induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2). The protective role of zinc chloride and expression of the metallothionein (MT), Ki-67, and Bcl-2 apoptotic proteins in hepatocytes were studied after subchronic exposure of mice to cadmium chloride for 21 days. Thirty male mice were randomly categorized into 6 groups (5 mice/group) as follows: a control group that did not receive any treatment, a group given ZnCl2 at 10 mg/kg alone, and two groups received ZnCl2 (10 mg/kg) in combination with CdCl2 at two concentrations (1.5 and 3 mg/kg), while the last two groups received CdCl2 alone at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg, respectively. Immunohistochemical examination revealed a decrease in Ki-67 expression in Kupffer and endothelial cells, which reflected cell proliferation downregulation accompanied by MT increased expression. However, the Bcl-2 was ameliorated and reduced to demonstrate an enhanced rate of necrosis rather than apoptosis. Furthermore, histopathological results showed significant alteration such as hepatocytes with a pyknotic nucleus, infiltration of inflammatory cells around the central vein, and the presence of many binucleated hepatocytes. Zinc chloride treatment resulted in histological and morphological improvements that were average in the expression of apoptosis proteins modifications induced by cadmium. Our findings revealed that the positive effects of zinc might be linked to the high metallothionein expression and enhanced cell proliferation. Furthermore, at low-dose exposure, cadmium-induced damage to cells could be more closely related to necrosis rather than apoptosis.

Journal of Toxicology
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision93 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore7.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.670
Impact Factor-
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