About Some Fundamental Aspects of the Growth Mechanism Vapor-Liquid-Solid NanowiresRead the full article
Journal of Nanotechnology publishes papers related to the science and technology of nanosized and nanostructured materials, with emphasis on their design, characterization, functionality, and preparation for implementation in systems and devices.
Journal of Nanotechnology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Photo-Oxidation of Organic Dye by Fe2O3 Nanoparticles: Catalyst, Electron Acceptor, and Polyurethane Membrane (PU-Fe2O3) Effects
The textile industry’s discharges have long been regarded as severe water pollution. The photocatalytic degradation of dyes using semiconductors is one of the crucial methods. The present study efficiently used the mechanical method to synthesize Iron oxide Nanoparticles. XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis DRS, and Raman analyses were performed to analyze the structural and optical. From the data provided by XRD and Raman data, we believed that the as-synthesized Iron oxide was pure hematite (α-Fe2O3) with a hexagonal structure. Additionally, the EDS results show that the synthesized material is pure. By adjusting specific parameters, including the dye concentration, the catalyst dosage, the pH, and the oxidizing agent such as H2O2 and K2S2O8, the degradation of eosin yellowish using Fe2O3 as a photocatalyst has been discussed. Additionally, the kinetics of eosin yellowish degradation has been studied. A study was also conducted using Fe2O3 nanoparticles attached to polyurethane polymer (PU) to investigate its photocatalytic activity on methylene blue, methyl orange, and indigo carmine. In 30 minutes, nearly 90% of the dyes had degraded. The total organic carbon (TOC) analysis confirmed this result.
Scanning Electrochemical Microscope Studies of Charge Transfer Kinetics at the Interface of the Perovskite/Hole Transport Layer
Interfacial carrier transfer kinetics is critical to the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Herein, we measure the regeneration rate constant, absorption cross-section, reduction rate constant, and conductivity of hole transport layered perovskites using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The SECM feedback revealed that the regeneration rate constant, absorption cross-section, and reduction rate constant of the nickel oxide (NiO) layer perovskite layer are higher than those of the poly (3,4-ethyenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrenesulfonate) layered perovskite. Also, at a specific flux density (), the value of the regeneration rate constant (keff) in both blue and red illuminations for the NiO/CH3NH3PbI3 film is significantly higher than in both PEDOT: PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 and FTO/CH3NH3PbI3 films. The difference in keff between layered and nonlayered perovskite conforms to the impact of the hole conducting layer on the charge transfer kinetics. According to the findings, SECM is a powerful approach for screening an appropriate hole transport layer for stable perovskite solar cells.
Device Performance of Double-Gate Schottky-Barrier Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors with Physical Scaling
Moore’s law is approaching its limit due to various challenges, especially the size limit of the transistors. The International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS), the successor of International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), has included 2D materials as an alternative approach for the More-than-Moore nanoelectronic applications. Among the 2D materials, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have been widely used as the alternative channel materials of field-effect transistors (FETs). In this paper, the impacts of physical scaling on the device performance of double-gate Schottky-barrier GNR FETs (DG-SB-GNRFETs) are investigated by using NanoTCAD ViDES simulation tool based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian and self-consistent solutions of 3D Poisson and Schrödinger equations with open boundary conditions within the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism. The extracted device performance parameters include the subthreshold swing and on-to-off current ratio. The results suggest that the performances of DG-SB-GNRFETs are strongly dependent on their physical parameters, especially the widths of the GNRs.
Optimization of Antibacterial, Structures, and Thermal Properties of Alginate-ZrO2 Bionanocomposite by the Taguchi Method
Developing novel antibacterial chemicals is constantly necessary since bacterial resistance to antibiotics is an inevitable occurrence. This research aimed to find the ideal conditions for using antibacterial zirconia (ZrO2) NPs with polymer alginate nanocomposites. Using the Taguchi method, alginate biopolymer, zirconia NPs, and stirring time were utilized to construct nine nanocomposites. Analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated the development of nanocomposites with appropriate structural properties. Antibacterial efficacy against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm was the highest when the nanocomposite was formed under the circumstances of experiment 6 (zirconia 8 mg/ml, alginate 70 mg/ml, and 40 min stirring time). Alginate/zirconia bionanocomposites generated using the in situ technique proved efficient against S. mutans. Nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and surface energy, which can cause them to agglomerate and make their antimicrobial effectiveness problematic. Using zirconia nanoparticles in an alginate polymer matrix in the form of nanocomposite can increase the stability of nanoparticles. Due to the advantageous antibacterial qualities of this bionanocomposite, it can be utilized in various medical materials and dental appliances.
Comparing Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Methods for Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) Obtention from Agroindustrial Rice Husk Waste
Agroindustrial residues represent a serious environmental problem in the world; in this case, the polluting rice husk, present in the rice fields of Morelos State, is one source of incalculable biomass. The aim of this study was to assess two viable and optimized procedures for obtaining nanocellulose from these wastes. The sieved samples included 4 treatments with different grain sizes (sieves # 10, 15, 30, and 50) and three replicates. They were then processed by an alkaline treatment (NaOH) 5%, bleaching with sodium hypochlorite, followed by pretreatment with 0.65% hydrochloric acid (HCl). After drying, the cellulose was subjected to acid hydrolysis with (H2SO4) at 64%, and was compared to an enzymatic hydrolysis complex. This complex was formed of D-(+) cellobiose and endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. End products were sonicated and dialyzed until they reach a neutral pH. Finally, the nanocellulose was characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, SEM, and TEM. Evident results recognize the nanocellulose (NC) synthesis by both routes, with greater contaminants generated in the medium by the acid hydrolysis. It is much more feasible and faster to achieve with enzymatic hydrolysis, less aggressive for the environment, and higher performance. In future trials, the cost-benefit of using the enzyme complex should be assessed as an alternative to replace acid hydrolysis.Key words: acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, waste, rice husk, Oryzasativa L, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).
Performance of Biocomposite Materials Reinforced by Hydroxyapatite and Seashell Nanoparticles for Bone Replacement
Bone defects and disorders include trauma, osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, bone tumours, arthritis rheumatoid, osteosarcoma, and iatrogenic injury. Obtaining a composite material with characteristics that mimic what bones in the human body have is a vital target for the purpose of replacing or repairing damaged bones. The key objective of this study was to develop a composite having mechanical and biological properties that resemble to a large extent native bone features. Highly biocompatible epoxy resin was reinforced by various weight fractions of seashell nanoparticles. The morphologies of the pristine bioepoxy, seashell-bioepoxy, and hydroxyapatite-bioepoxy composites were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the mechanical properties were examined by the means of tension and Izod impact tests. Besides, the influence of seashell and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the bioepoxy chemical structure and thermal properties was also evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry technique, respectively. The tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and impact strength of the seashell nanoparticle-reinforced bioepoxy were revealed to be higher than those of the unmodified bioepoxy and were significantly depended on the filler content. When the mass fraction of the reinforcement was 7 wt%, the improvement in the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and impact strength was around 46.7%, 37%, and 57%, respectively, compared to that of blank bioepoxy. In addition, these properties were higher for the composites loaded with seashell nanoparticles than those filled with commercially available hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. An enhancement in glass transition temperature for the bioepoxy after modification with both of these nanofillers was also achieved. All these features make these kinds of composites a promising option that could be used in the orthopaedic field. Furthermore, the use of seashell nanoparticles may reduce the cost of the resulted composite and alleviate the negative consequences of large quantity by-product waste seashells on the environment.