Diversity and Abundance of Breeding Birds, Habitat, and Nesting Substrate Selection in Urban Areas: A Relevant Case from the Southern Slope of the MediterraneanRead the full article
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Temporal Foraging and Ranging Patterns Suggested the Niche Partitioning of Two Sympatric Herbivores, Axis axis and Bubalus bubalis, in the Nijhum Dweep National Park of Bangladesh
For proper conservation measures and to elucidate coexistence mechanism of sympatric herbivore, we assessed the temporal foraging and ranging patterns of the Axis axis (spotted deer) and feral and/or semi domesticated Bubalus bubalis (buffalos) in the Nijhum Dweep National Park (NDNP) of Bangladesh. We have collected the data by day long scan sampling method for 12 months. We found that spotted deer and buffalos, respectively, spent 50.34% and 36.41% of their total day time in foraging. To avoid clash with the larger sized buffalos in the grazing ground, the spotted deer choose a slightly different time for grazing. At least three foraging peaks were found for spotted deer, whereas, buffalos showed two foraging peaks in a day. More importantly, spotted deer relied more on browsing for their food collection although they are natural gazer, whereas, buffalos relied more on their natural grazing habit for food collection. Spotted deer spent most of their time inside the forest and forest edges, whereas, buffalos mostly spent their time in the open grazing grounds. The range of total distance moved (TDM) per day for spotted deer and buffalos was 1.56 to 2.67 km and 1.02 to 3.30 km, respectively. The total area ranged (TAR) per day were 0.23 km2 to 0.8 km2 for spotted deer and 0.03 km2 to 0.35 km2 for buffalos. Although, these two parameters varied seasonally for both species, only in case of TAR of spotted deer the variation was statistically significant (). We conclude that because of the presence of a larger sympatric herbivore, the spotted deer did some alterations in their temporal foraging and ranging pattern (TFRP) to survive in the small island which has very limited resources for their existence and survival.
Spatial and Temporal Monitoring of North African Turtle Doves Streptopelia turtur arenicola (Hartert, EJO, 1894): First Migrants Arrive Early and Select Nesting Trees next to Foraging Resources while Second Breeders’ Wave Breed around Earlier Nests
This study aimed to evaluate the spatial microdistribution and temporal microdistribution of the North African subspecies of the globally threatened Turtle Doves in Morocco. From the end of February to early September, we monitored the migration dates, counting arrival and departure dates, and breeding chronology, to clarify if the breeding season is divided into sub-breeding phases or not. Equally, the spatial distribution of nests following potential breeding phases was surveyed weekly in Beni Mellal province following a map of a selected orange orchard. Doves arrived in Beni Mellal in the third week of March and left in mid-October, according to the results. The first nests occurred in the second week of April, followed by the first eggs in the third week of April and the first chicks in the first week of May. PCA analysis showed that the nesting and laying stages were achieved principally during the last two weeks of April and the first three weeks of May, the hatching stage between the fourth week of May and the second week of July, and fledging between the fourth week of July and the first week of September. Further, the breeding season was divided into two phases: the first breeding phase, from the first week of April to the first week of June, and the second phase, between the second week of June and the second week of August. The DCA analysis and orchard-created map indicated that the first wave of breeders colonized the marginal trees located on the orchard sides, surrounded by foraging cereals and legumes, and the second breeding-phase nests were constructed in flocks next to the nests of the first breeding phase. According to this strategy, the first breeders prospect the orchard and select nesting trees near foraging resources, while the second breeders’ wave colonizes trees near successfully used prospector sites. These findings are of great importance for comparative investigations and habitat-scale conservation management.
A Preliminary Study on the Functionality of the Carotid-Vertebral Anastomotic Artery in the Regulation of Blood Flow in the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) by Duplex Ultrasound Examination
Postural change intermittently between upright and head down in giraffes standing at a height of 4.5 meters is of physiological significance. The length of a giraffe’s neck denotes the flow of blood against the force of gravity, to supply the brain over a 2 m distance. The force of gravity also affects the flow of blood toward the brain, with a posture change from erect to ground level. How do these changes in stance not result in fainting when the head is raised and brain damage when the head is lowered? Giraffe has an advanced interconnection of the common carotid artery and the vertebral artery. The connection is located at the midpoint of the atlas, as indicated by means of computerized tomography and dissection. Duplex ultrasound with Doppler waveform examination showed the unidirectional movement of blood with movement from the vertebral artery into the common carotid artery when the head is erect. The direction of flow allows the provision of blood to the maxillary artery that feeds the rostral epidural rete that supplies to the brain. The flow direction in the carotid-vertebral connection changes when blood moves in the direction of the head along with the force of gravity, when the head is lowered. The rerouting of blood to move from the common carotid into the vertebral artery prevents brain damage. We have confirmed, by utilizing a CT scan, Doppler sonar, and dissection of latex-filled arteries, the existence and blood flow direction within the anastomotic artery associated with variation in posture in the giraffe.
Diversity, Species Composition, and Relative Abundance of Avifauna at Debre Libanos Monastery, Ethiopia
Data on avifaunal diversity and distribution are vital to enhance and inform conservation efforts. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the diversity, distribution, and relative abundance of bird species in the Derbe Libanos Monastery Forest. The data were collected from December 2019 to September 2020, covering both the wet and dry seasons. Natural forest, plantation, cliff forest, and settlement were identified as an important habitat for the birds using a stratified random sampling design based on vegetation composition and characteristics. Point counts were employed to identify and record birds in the four habitat types. During the study, 61 avian species belonging to 13 orders and 31 families were identified. The highest diversity (H′ = 3.43) and evenness (E = 0.96) were observed in the summer season in natural forests. The difference in abundance of bird species was statistically significant between observed and expected counts of each species in different habitats (χ2 = 629.97, df = 60, and ). Recognizing that the monastery forest has a large number of bird species, enhanced avian monitoring and forest reintegration opportunities should be prioritized for conservation.
Evaluation of N-alkanes as Faecal Markers to Estimate Diet Composition, Feed Intake, and Digestibility in European Bison (Bison bonasus)
There is a lack of knowledge on the European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758) foraging behavior that is essential to develop an appropriate feeding strategy for each specific situation (captive or wild). Utilization of faecal markers may allow us to fill this gap, accommodating animal welfare and intensive labour issues that are major limitations of traditional techniques. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of n-alkane markers (C25 to C33) to estimate diet composition, feed intake its digestibility on three captive maleBison bonasus fed on known amounts of straw, and a beeswax labelled concentrate feed. Feeds and faecal samples were taken daily during 10 days. Prior to calculations, faecal concentrations were corrected for incomplete faecal recovery (FR). Results indicated that 4–5 days were sufficient for these markers to reach a steady concentration in bison faeces. Accurate estimates of diet composition and feed intake were obtained not differing from known values. Results suggest that faecal recovery of n-alkanes in bison are incomplete and tend to increase with carbon-chain length. Apparent dry-matter digestibility (DMDap) estimates were affected by the n-alkane (C27, C29,C31, and C33) used in the calculations. Estimates of DMDap obtained with application of FR corrections were 6.3% higher than those without correction. Results indicate that feeding a known amount of beeswax labelled supplement can be successfully used to estimate composition, feed intake, and its digestibility, requiring the application of n-alkane FR data.
The Activity and Ranging Patterns of Gelada Monkeys as Behavioral Responses to the Effects of Livestock Grazing in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
Understanding of behavioral ecology of primates in grazed lands is vital to their conservation and monitoring strategies. Here we investigated how livestock grazing within the Simien Mountains National Park affects the activity time budgeting and ranging behavior of the geladas, a monkey endemic to Ethiopian highlands. This study was carried out from February 2019 to July 2019 by stratifying the study area as grazed and nongrazed sites. Activity time pattern data were collected using 5 minutes instantaneous scan sampling within 15 minutes intervals from 7:00 to 18:00 for 10 days per month in the grazed and nongrazed sites. The ranging data were also collected by tracking the study group and recording GPS points every 15 minutes sample. The effects of livestock grazing on activity time budgets were statistically analyzed by multiple analyses of variance (MANOVA). Daily range length and home range size were estimated by employing the Open Jump toolbox (MOVEAN), and statistically tested by Mann–Whitney U test. From 3427 behavioral scans on the various activities, feeding was the most frequent (43.04%) behavioral activity followed by moving, accounting for 38.06% of the time. The study revealed that grazing has a statistically significant effect on moving and social activity time budgets. The geladas dwelling in the grazed areas of the park spent more time in moving than in the nongrazed areas. The effect of grazing on social behavior is the reverse of moving. Similarly, geladas traveled longer daily range length and cover a wider home range size in the grazed areas. Therefore, these findings of the study imply that livestock grazing is adversely affecting the behavior of gelada monkeys in the park. To minimize such effects on gelada monkeys and harmonize grazing with wildlife habitat conservation, the grazing pressure reduction strategy must be closely monitored and supported by animal feed cultivation technology.