Application of Chitosan-Based Hydrogel Obtained from Insects in Pine PlantingRead the full article
International Journal of Biomaterials publishes research on the theory, design, engineering, fabrication, and implementation of materials and devices for therapeutic or diagnostic use in biological systems.
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Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis between Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Injectable Platelet-Rich Fibrin
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) obtained via low-speed centrifugation has antimicrobial properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced platelet-rich fibrin plus (A-PRF+) and injectable platelet-rich fibrin (I-PRF), obtained from patients with different periodontal states, against Porphyromonas gingivalis. A-PRF+ and I-PRF samples were obtained from venous blood of 60 subjects divided equally into three groups: periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy gingiva groups. The antibacterial experiments evaluated biofilm inhibition, mature biofilm impact, and time-kill kinetics. The percent reduction in biofilm-growing and mature biofilm bacteria ranged from 39% to 49% and 3% to 7%, respectively. In the time-kill kinetics assay, PRF from the periodontitis group was more effective as an antimicrobial than that from the gingivitis and healthy gingiva group (); I-PRF was more effective than A-PRF+ () and both of them showed peak antibacterial activity after 12 h of exposure. Both A-PRF+ and I-PRF exhibited antibacterial properties against P. gingivalis, but I-PRF appeared to be more effective. The PRF obtained from the different groups appeared to have different degrees of antimicrobial efficacy.
A Novel Coating of Orthodontic Archwires with Chlorhexidine Hexametaphosphate Nanoparticles
Statement of the Problem. The use of orthodontic fixed appliances may adversely affect oral health leading to demineralizing lesions and the development of gingival problems. Aims of the Study. The study aimed to coat orthodontic archwires with chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles (CHX-HMP NPs) and to evaluate the elusion of CHX from CHX-HMP NPs. Materials and Methods. A solution of CHX-HMP nanoparticles with an overall concentration of 5 mM for both CHX and HMP was prepared, characterized (using atomic force microscope and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy), and used to coat orthodontic stainless steel (SSW) and NiTi archwires (NiTiW). The coated segments were characterized (using scanning electron microscopy SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and field emission SEM) and subjected to the elusion assessment. Results. After having their composition validated, the average size of the CHX-HMP NPs was assessed to be 51.21 nm, and the analysis revealed that the particles had both chlorine and phosphorus. After 30 minutes in the coating solution, NPs deposited on the surface of the SSW and NiTiW. A continuous release of soluble CHX in artificial saliva was detected from both SSW and NiTiW as long as the experiment lasted for 28 days without reaching a plateau. However, the release from coated NiTiW was significantly more than coated SSW at 7, 14, and 28 days. While at day 21, the release from coated SSW was slightly greater than that from the coated NiTiW. Conclusion. Orthodontic stainless steel and NiTi archwires can be successfully coated with CHX-HMP NPs and give sustained release of CHX along the examined period.
Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrogel-Based Hyaluronic Acid-Chitosan-Allium sativum Extract for Intraperitoneal Antiadhesion Application
Peritoneal Adhesion is a severe case that frequently occurs in patients after laparotomy surgery. Adhesions are pathological attachment that usually appears between the omentum, intestine, and abdominal wall. Several barriers are made to prevent adhesions, including liquid barriers such as sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) but are fast absorbed-time hydrogel. The solid barrier has weakness of difficulty in covering all parts of the wound surface. The study aims to synthesize degradable hydrogel from N,O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan (NOCC), Aldehyde-Hyaluronic Acid, and the addition of Allium sativum (garlic oil). The best sample with the concentration of A-HA/NOCC 30 : 10 g/ml was obtained. The composite hydrogel of NOCC/AHA/Allium sativum has susceptible antimicrobial properties. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that hydrogel is nontoxic. The degradation time is for two weeks. The in vivo evaluation in a mouse model with an abrasion defect side was done to identify the effectiveness of the NOCC/AHA/A. sativum as antiperitoneal adhesion. Seven days after surgery, the observation of adhesion was performed. Based on all assay results, it can be resumed that the NOCC/AHA/A. sativum hydrogel possibly acts as an innovation to prevent postoperative intraperitoneal adhesion.
Metallic Implant Surface Activation through Electrospinning Coating of Nanocomposite Fiber for Bone Regeneration
There is a critical need in orthopedic and orthodontic clinics for enhanced implant-bone interface contact to facilitate the quick establishment of a strong and durable connection. Surface modification by bioactive multifunctional materials is a possible way to overcome the poor osteoconductivity and the potential infection of Ti-based implants. Ti-25Zr biometallic alloy was prepared by powder metallurgy technique and then coated by Nano-composite fiber using electrospinning. Ceramic Nanocompound (CaTiO3, BaTiO3) was used as filler material and individually added to polymeric matrices constructed from the blend of polycaprolactone/chitosan. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and wettability, respectively, the morphology, chemical analysis, surface roughness, and contact angle measurements of the samples were evaluated. The result shows a significant improvement in cell viability, proliferation, and ALP activity for coated samples compared to noncoated samples. PCL/Chitosan/Nano-CaTiO3 (CA1) recorded remarkable enhancement from the surface-coated samples, demonstrating a significantly higher cell viability value after seven days of MC3T3-E1 cell culture, reaching 271.56 ± 13.15%, and better cell differentiation with ALP activity reaching 5.61 ± 0.35 fold change for the same culture time. PCL/Chitosan/Nano-BaTiO3 (BA1) also shows significant improvement in cell viability by 181.63 ± 17.87% and has ALP activity of 3.97 ± 0.67 fold change. For coated samples, cell proliferation likewise exhibits a considerable temporal increase; the improvement reaches 237.53% for (CA1) and 125.16% for (BA1) in comparison with uncoated samples (bare Ti-25Zr). The coated samples resist bacteria in the antibacterial test compared to the noncoated samples with no inhibition zone. This behavior suggests that a Nanocomposite fiber coat containing an active ceramic Nanocompound (CaTiO3, BaTiO3) promotes cell growth and holds promise for orthodontic and orthopedic bioapplication.
Commercially Available Textiles as a Scaffolding Platform for Large-Scale Cell Culture
The present study outlines the evaluation of textile materials that are currently in the market for cell culture applications. By using normal LaserJet printing techniques, we created the substrates, which were then characterized physicochemically and biologically. In particular, (i) we found that the weave pattern and (ii) the chemical nature of the textiles significantly influenced the behaviour of the cells. Textiles with closely knitted fibers and cell adhesion motifs, exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation over a period of 7 days. All the substrates supported good viability of cells (>80%). We believe that these aspects make commercially available textiles as a potential candidate for large-scale culture of adherent cells.
High-Yield Alpha-Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches by Optimizing Thermochemical Delignification Processes for Use as Microcrystalline Cellulose
Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) are lignocellulosic materials that are a by-product of the palm oil industry, which have less use and utilization is still limited. OPEFB’s high cellulose content could potentially develop into various bioproducts, especially biomaterials. The thermochemical delignification process can obtain high-yieldalpha-cellulose. The cellulose extraction process can be done by combining the bleaching process under acidic conditions and alkaline delignification to obtain high-purity cellulose. The bleaching conditions vary in the concentration of NaClO2, the length of bleaching, the temperature, and the number of stages. The research obtains high α-cellulose by optimizing bleaching conditions under acidic conditions in cellulose’s OPEFB extraction with variability on NaClO2 concentration and bleaching time using response surface methodology (RSM). The bleaching process was implemented at an early stage with a concentration of 3% NaClO2 and a bleaching time of 2 hours as a center point with a bleaching cycle of twice at pH 4–4.5 using acetic acid. Bleached fibers were delignified using 10% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature. The RSM analysis resulted in optimum bleaching conditions at a concentration of 3.22% NaClO2 for 1 hour, yielding OPEFB’s cellulose of 82.96% ± 2.53, hemicellulose of 9.27% ± 2.28, and lignin of 1.68% ± 0.58. The validation and verification process in the bleaching conditions obtained cellulose of 84.87% and α-cellulose of 88.51%, with a crystallinity index of 70.55% and crystallite size of 2.35 nm. Scanning electron microscopy on surface cellulose morphology at optimum bleaching helped remove hemicellulose impurities, lignin, and inorganic materials and a more intensive opening of cellulose fibrils. The bleaching process optimization point was verified to improve the delignification performance and potentially produce high yield α-cellulose content for microcrystalline cellulose use.